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Feedback from massive stars and gas expulsion from proto-globular clusters

Calura, F.; Few, C. G.; Romano, D.; D'Ercole, A.


F. Calura

D. Romano

A. D'Ercole


© 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Globular clusters (GCs) are considerably more complex structures than previously thought, harboring at least two stellar generations that present clearly distinct chemical abundances. Scenarios explaining the abundance patterns in GCs mostly assume that originally the clusters had to be much more massive than today, and that the second generation of stars originates from the gas shed by stars of the first generation (FG). The lack of metallicity spread in most GCs further requires that the supernova-enriched gas ejected by the FG is completely lost within ∼30 Myr, a hypothesis never tested by means of three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. In this paper, we use 3D hydrodynamic simulations including stellar feedback from winds and supernovae, radiative cooling and self-gravity to study whether a realistic distribution of OB associations in a massive proto-GC of initial mass M tot ∼ 10 7 M o is sufficient to expel its entire gas content. Our numerical experiment shows that the coherence of different associations plays a fundamental role: as the bubbles interact, distort, and merge, they carve narrow tunnels that reach deeper and deeper toward the innermost cluster regions, and through which the gas is able to escape. Our results indicate that after 3 Myr, the feedback from stellar winds is responsible for the removal of ∼40% of the pristine gas, and that after 14 Myr, 99% of the initial gas mass has been removed.


Calura, F., Few, C. G., Romano, D., & D'Ercole, A. (2015). Feedback from massive stars and gas expulsion from proto-globular clusters. Astrophysical journal. Letters, 814(1),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 5, 2015
Online Publication Date Nov 18, 2015
Publication Date Nov 20, 2015
Deposit Date May 12, 2016
Publicly Available Date May 12, 2016
Journal Astrophysical journal letters
Print ISSN 2041-8205
Electronic ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher American Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 814
Issue 1
Article Number ARTN L14
Keywords Hydrodynamics, ISM: bubbles, Methods: numerical
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Copy of article first published in: Astrophysical journal letters, 2015, v.814, issue 1


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