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Transverse fracture properties of green wood and the anatomy of six temperate tree species

Özden, Seray; Ennos, Anthony Roland; Cattaneo, Marco E.G.V.


Marco E. G. V. Cattaneo

Seray Özden

Anthony Roland Ennos

Marco E.G.V. Cattaneo


© Institute of Chartered Foresters, 2016. All rights reserved. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of wood anatomy and density on the mechanics of fracture when wood is split in the radial-longitudinal (RL) and tangential-longitudinal (TL) fracture systems. The specific fracture energies (Gf, J m-2) of the trunk wood of six tree species were studied in the green state using double-edge notched tensile tests. The fracture surfaces were examined in both systems using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). Wood density and ray characteristics were also measured. The results showed that Gf in RL was greater than TL for five of the six species. In particular, the greatest degree of anisotropy was observed in Quercus robur L., and the lowest in Larix decidua Mill. ESEM micrographs of fractured specimens suggested reasons for the anisotropy and differences across tree species. In the RL system, fractures broke across rays, the walls of which unwound like tracheids in longitudinal-tangential (LT) and longitudinal-radial (LR) failure, producing a rough fracture surface which would absorb energy, whereas in the TL system, fractures often ran alongside rays.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jan 1, 2017
Journal Forestry
Print ISSN 0015-752X
Electronic ISSN 1464-3626
Publisher Oxford University Press (OUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 90
Issue 1
Pages 58-69
Keywords Radial-longitudinal fracture systems, Tangential-longitudinal fracture systems, Environmental scanning electron microscopy
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Forestry following peer review. The version of record Seray Özden, Anthony Roland Ennos, Marco E. G. V. Cattaneo; Transverse fracture properties of green wood and the anatomy of six temperate tree species. Forestry (Lond) 2017; 90 (1): 58-69 is available online at:


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