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Determination of deoxynivalenol in the urine of pregnant women in the UK

Rigby, Alan; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Wells, Liz; Atkin, Stephen; Brera, Carlo; De Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; Greetham, Stephanie; Hardie, Laura; Liu, Yunru; Moretti, Georgio; White, Kay; Williams, Courtney


Alan Rigby

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Mrs Liz Wells
Lecturer in Nutrition and Dietetics

Stephen Atkin

Carlo Brera

Barbara De Santis

Francesca Debegnach

Stephanie Greetham

Laura Hardie

Yunru Liu

Georgio Moretti

Kay White

Courtney Williams


Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes, produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. Little is known about the effect of DON exposure or the levels of DON exposure that occur during pregnancy. The project aimed to provide data on levels of total DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in pregnant human urine samples analysed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Morning urine samples were collected over two consecutive days from 42 volunteers and associated food consumption was recorded for the 24hour prior to the sample. Spearman’s rho non- parametric test for correlation was used to assess the data. Levels of DON did not differ significantly between day 1 (mean 29.7 ng/ml urine or 40.1 ng DON/mg creatinine and day 2 (mean 28.7 ng/ml urine or 38.8 ng DON/mg creatinine ng/ml day) urine samples. The only significant positive correlation was found between total ng DON/mg creatinine and parity (rho = 0.307, n = 42, p<0.005 two tailed) and total ng DON/mg creatinine with baked goods on day 1 (rho = 0.532, n = 42, p<0.0005 two tailed). This study provides data on the DON levels in pregnancy in this suburban population and reassurance that those levels are within acceptable limits.


Rigby, A., Sathyapalan, T., Wells, L., Atkin, S., Brera, C., De Santis, B., …Williams, C. (2016). Determination of deoxynivalenol in the urine of pregnant women in the UK. Toxins, 8(11), 306.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 20, 2016
Online Publication Date Oct 25, 2016
Publication Date Nov 1, 2016
Deposit Date Sep 26, 2016
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Toxins
Electronic ISSN 2072-6651
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
Issue 11
Article Number UNSP 306
Pages 306
Keywords Mycotoxins, Deoxynivalenol, Pregnancy, Vomitoxin
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Additional Information Copy of article: Wells, L.; Hardie, L.; Williams, C.; White, K.; Liu, Y.; De Santis, B.; Debegnach, F.; Moretti, G.; Greetham, S.; Brera, C.; Rigby, A.; Atkin, S.; Sathyapalan, T. Determination of Deoxynivalenol in the Urine of Pregnant Women in the UK. Toxins 2016, 8, 306.


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© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (

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