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Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years

McKay, Marnee J.; Baldwin, Jennifer N.; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua


Marnee J. McKay

Jennifer N. Baldwin

Paulo Ferreira

Milena Simic

Elizabeth Wojciechowski

Anita Mudge

Joshua Burns


Objective The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. Methods In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3–101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed® platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3–9 years, adolescents aged 10–19 years, adults aged 20–59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. Results A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. Conclusion This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan.


McKay, M. J., Baldwin, J. N., Ferreira, P., Simic, M., Vanicek, N., Wojciechowski, E., …Burns, J. (2017). Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years. Gait and Posture, 58, 78-87.

Acceptance Date Jul 3, 2017
Online Publication Date Jul 18, 2017
Publication Date 2017-10
Deposit Date Aug 10, 2017
Publicly Available Date Jul 24, 2018
Journal Gait and posture
Print ISSN 0966-6362
Electronic ISSN 1879-2219
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 58
Pages 78-87
Keywords Normative reference values; Spatiotemporal; Lifespan data; Gait; Plantar pressure; Pedobarography
Public URL
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement ©2018, Elsevier. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Additional Information This is the accepted manuscript of an article published in Gait and posture, 2017. The version of record is available at the DOI link in this record.

The 1000 Norms Project Consortium: The members of the 1000 Norms Project Consortium are as follows: University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia: Jennifer Baldwin, Marnee McKay, Angus Chard, Paulo Ferreira, Alycia Fong Yan, Claire Hiller, Fiona Lee (nee Zheng), Martin Mackey, Niamh Moloney, Seyed Mousavi, Leslie Nicholson, Elizabeth Nightingale, Fereshteh Pourkazemi, Jacqueline Raymond, Kristy Rose, Milena Simic, Amy Sman, Caleb Wegener, Kathryn Refshauge and Joshua Burns; Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia: Niamh Moloney; Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia: Kathryn North; Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney: Markus Hübscher; University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom: Natalie Vanicek; University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia: Kate Quinlan.


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