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Validity and reliability of the Apple Watch for measuring heart rate during exercise

Khushhal, Alaa; Nichols, Simon; Evans, Will; Gleadall-Siddall, Damien; Page, Richard; O'Doherty, Alasdair F.; Carroll, Sean; Ingle, Lee; Abt, Grant

Authors

Alaa Khushhal

Simon Nichols

Will Evans

Richard Page

Alasdair F. O'Doherty

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Dr Grant Abt G.Abt@hull.ac.uk
Reader in Sport and Exercise Physiology and Head of Department for Sport, Health and Exercise Science

Abstract

We examined the validity and reliability of the Apple Watch heart rate sensor during and in recovery from exercise. Twenty-one males completed treadmill exercise while wearing two Apple Watches (left and right wrists) and a Polar S810i monitor (criterion). Exercise involved 5 min bouts of walking, jogging, and running at speeds of 4 km.h-1, 7 km.h-1, and 10 km.h-1, followed by 11 min of rest between bouts. At all exercise intensities the mean bias was trivial. There were very good correlations with the criterion during walking (L: r = 0.97; R: r = 0.97), but poor (L: r = 0.82; R: r = 0.80) and poor/good (L: r = 0.81; R: r = 0.86) correlations during jogging and running. Standardised typical error of the estimate was small, small, and small to moderate. There were good correlations following walking, but poor correlations following jogging and running. The percentage of heart rates recorded reduced with increasing intensity but increased over time. Intra-device standardised typical errors decreased with intensity. Inter-device standardised typical errors were small to moderate with very good to nearly perfect intraclass correlations. The Apple Watch heart rate sensor has very good validity during walking but validity decreases with increasing intensity.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2017-06
Journal Sports medicine international open
Print ISSN 2367-1890
Electronic ISSN 2367-1890
Publisher Thieme Open
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 1
Issue 6
Pages E206-E211
Institution Citation Khushhal, A., Nichols, S., Evans, W., Gleadall-Siddall, D., Page, R., O'Doherty, A. F., …Abt, G. (2017). Validity and reliability of the Apple Watch for measuring heart rate during exercise. SMIO / Sports Medicine International Open, 1(6), E206-E211. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-120195
DOI https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-120195
Keywords Smartwatch, Wearables, Technology
Publisher URL https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/html/10.1055/s-0043-120195
Copyright Statement Creative Commons Licence: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Additional Information Copy of article first published in: Sports medicine international open, 2017, v.1, issue 6

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Copyright Statement
Creative Commons Licence: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/



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