Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Youth sport during the COVID-19 pandemic: The influence of race and affluence on parents’ perspectives of youth participation

Hardiman, Amand L.; Fleming, Daniel J.M.; Dorsch, Travis E.; Blazo, Jordan A.; Farrey, Tom; Lerner, Jennifer Brown; Solomon, Jon


Amand L. Hardiman

Travis E. Dorsch

Jordan A. Blazo

Tom Farrey

Jennifer Brown Lerner

Jon Solomon


COVID-19 restrictions led to a nearly 50% decline in youth sport participation across the United States (Dorsch et al., 2021). Today, communities and sport organizations have resumed sport. However, research has yet to fully elucidate how COVID-19 restrictions impacted youth participation across different sociodemographic groups during the pandemic. The present study explored the association between race and affluence and their relationship with parents' attitudes toward children's youth sport participation before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Online questionnaires were completed by a nationally representative sample of 3706 parents (Mage = 39.57 ± 9.03 years) who had a child regularly participating in youth sport before COVID-19. Multivariate Analyses of Variance using Tukey post-hoc tests were conducted to examine the main effect differences by race and affluence and the interactive effects of race and affluence. Results suggest that race and affluence -- independently and in combination -- were salient categorical variables of children's weekly hours of sport participation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings highlight that White*high affluent groups had the highest rates of sport participation during the COVID-19 pandemic and that these families desire to invest more time and money at greater rates upon returning. Theoretically, designed intersectionality research is recommended to explore further effects of race and affluence in youth sport.


Hardiman, A. L., Fleming, D. J., Dorsch, T. E., Blazo, J. A., Farrey, T., Lerner, J. B., & Solomon, J. (2024). Youth sport during the COVID-19 pandemic: The influence of race and affluence on parents’ perspectives of youth participation. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 10, Article 100907.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 27, 2024
Online Publication Date Apr 3, 2024
Publication Date 2024
Deposit Date Apr 12, 2024
Publicly Available Date Apr 12, 2024
Journal Social Sciences and Humanities Open
Print ISSN 2590-2911
Electronic ISSN 2590-2911
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Article Number 100907
Keywords Youth sport; COVID-19; Race; Affluence; Intersectionality
Public URL


Downloadable Citations