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Electrophysiological responses to violations of expectation from eye gaze and arrow cues

Tipples, Jason; Johnston, Pat; Mayes, Angela


Jason Tipples

Pat Johnston

Angela Mayes


Isolating processes within the brain that are specific to human behavior is a key goal for social neuroscience. The current research was an attempt to test whether recent findings of enhanced negative ERPs in response to unexpected human gaze are unique to eye gaze stimuli by comparing the effects of gaze cues with the effects of an arrow cue. ERPs were recorded while participants (N=30) observed a virtual actor or an arrow that gazed (or pointed) either toward (object congruent) or away from (object incongruent) a flashing checkerboard. An enhanced negative ERP (N300) in response to object incongruent compared to object congruent trials was recorded for both eye gaze and arrow stimuli. The findings are interpreted as reflecting a domain general mechanism for detecting unexpected events.


Tipples, J., Johnston, P., & Mayes, A. (2013). Electrophysiological responses to violations of expectation from eye gaze and arrow cues. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(5), 509-514.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date Mar 15, 2012
Publication Date 2013-06
Deposit Date Nov 13, 2014
Publicly Available Date Nov 13, 2014
Journal Social cognitive and affective neuroscience
Print ISSN 1749-5016
Electronic ISSN 1749-5024
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
Issue 5
Pages 509-514
Keywords Eye gaze, Face perception, Theory of mind, ERP, High-density ERP
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Social cognitive and affective neuroscience following peer review. The version of record Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci (2013) 8 (5): 509-514. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss024 is available online at:


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