Little attention has been paid to writing a more inclusive forest history of the Philippines, one that combines a biocentric and anthropocentric focus. Deep forestry is an attempt to do just that. It shows how the forest was shaped by climate, soil, fire, and animals as well as by human actions. Not only did people shape the forest, but the forest shaped the people. This article examines how these deep historical processes have worked out over time and explores the implications of adopting such a perspective.
Bankoff, G. (2013). "Deep forestry": Shapers of the Philippine forests. Environmental History, 18(3), 523-556. https://doi.org/10.1093/envhis/emt037