Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Increasing the immersivity of 360° videos facilitates learning and memory: implications for theory and practice

Peney, Tom; Skarratt, Paul A.


Tom Peney


Recent years have seen an increase in the use of immersive virtual reality (IVR) technology in education and training. Studies examining the efficacy of IVR-based interventions have shown improved performance compared to traditional training programmes; however, little is known about whether such improvements can be detected at the level of individual cognitive abilities. The present study sought to examine the effect of IVR on memory using an incidental learning paradigm. Undergraduate volunteers viewed a three-minute 360° video clip under immersive and non-immersive conditions– respectively, using a Head Mounted Display (HMD) or a 2D flat screen monitor – followed by a surprise recall task. Although both devices supported active exploration of the scene in 360°, recall was significantly improved for learners in the immersive condition. These findings suggest that IVR has a facilitative effect on cognition, and that learners may naturally engage with IVR-delivered content without any special instruction or preparation.


Peney, T., & Skarratt, P. A. (2024). Increasing the immersivity of 360° videos facilitates learning and memory: implications for theory and practice. Educational Technology Research and Development,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 21, 2024
Online Publication Date Jun 28, 2024
Publication Date 2024
Deposit Date Jul 8, 2024
Publicly Available Date Jul 8, 2024
Journal Educational technology research and development
Print ISSN 1042-1629
Electronic ISSN 1556-6501
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Immersive technologies; Virtual reality; Media in education Informal learning; Improving classroom teaching
Public URL


Published article (919 Kb)

Publisher Licence URL

Copyright Statement
© The Author(s) 2024.
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

You might also like

Downloadable Citations