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Maternal smoking and the risk of still birth: systematic review and meta-analysis

Marufu, Takawira C.; Ahankari, Anand; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah

Authors

Takawira C. Marufu

Tim Coleman

Sarah Lewis



Abstract

BACKGROUND: Smoking in pregnancy is known to be associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet there is a high prevalence of smoking among pregnant women in many countries, and it remains a major public health concern. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide contemporary estimates of the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth. METHODS: We searched four databases namely MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych Info and Web of Science for all relevant original studies published until 31(st) December 2012. We included observational studies that measured the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth. RESULTS: 1766 studies were screened for title analysis, of which 34 papers (21 cohorts, 8 case controls and 5 cross sectional studies) met the inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis smoking during pregnancy was significantly associated with a 47% increase in the odds of stillbirth (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.37, 1.57, p  <  0.0001). In subgroup analysis, smoking 1-9 cig/day and ≥10 cig/day was associated with an 9% and 52% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively. Subsequently, studies defining stillbirth at ≥ 20 weeks demonstrated a 43% increase in odds for smoking mothers compared to mothers who do not smoke, (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32, 1.54, p  <  0.0001), whereas studies with stillbirth defined at ≥ 24 weeks and ≥ 28 weeks showed 58% and 33% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively. CONCLUSION: Our review confirms a dose-response effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on risk of stillbirth. To minimise the risk of stillbirth, reducing current smoking prevalence in pregnancy should continue to be a key public health high priority.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2015-12
Journal BMC public health
Print ISSN 1471-2458
Electronic ISSN 1471-2458
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 15
Issue 1
Article Number ARTN 239
Pages 239
APA6 Citation Marufu, T. C., Ahankari, A., Coleman, T., & Lewis, S. (2015). Maternal smoking and the risk of still birth: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC public health, 15(1), 239. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1552-5
DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1552-5
Keywords Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Copyright Statement © Marufu et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Copyright Statement
© Marufu et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.





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