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Constraints and autonomy for creativity in extracurricular gamejams and curricular assessment

Grey, Simon; Parker, David; Gordon, Neil



The engagement observed by the players of the games that they play is a desirable quality that has not gone unnoticed in the field of education, leading to concepts such as gamification of education, game-based learning and serious games for training. Game designer Sid Meier is often cited as defining games as being ‘a series of interesting decisions’. The concept of choice implies an autonomous selection from a constrained set of options. This article reflects on the impact of autonomy and constraints, and extrinsic and intrinsic motivators on students’ software development work during both curricular and extracurricular activities. Finally, a model for the design of games for game-based learning is proposed in terms of autonomy and constraints with respect to learning outcomes.


Grey, S., Parker, D., & Gordon, N. (2018). Constraints and autonomy for creativity in extracurricular gamejams and curricular assessment. Research in Learning Technology, 26, Article 2023.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 15, 2017
Online Publication Date May 8, 2018
Publication Date May 9, 2018
Deposit Date Feb 27, 2018
Publicly Available Date Nov 13, 2018
Print ISSN 2156-7069
Electronic ISSN 2156-7077
Publisher Taylor & Francis Open Access
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 26
Article Number 2023
Keywords Learning; Gamejam; Extrinsic motivators; Intrinsic motivators
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This paper is part of the Special Collection: Playful Learning Conference, edited by Fiona Smart and Mark Langan.


Article (1.4 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
(, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

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