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Reduction of frontal plane knee load caused by lateral trunk lean depends on step width

Anderson, Jennifer; King, Stephanie; Przybyla, Andrzej; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan; Barton, Gabor


Jennifer Anderson

Andrzej Przybyla

Lakshminarayan Ranganath

Gabor Barton


The internal knee abduction moment (KAM) in osteoarthritis is reduced by increased lateral trunk lean (TL). Mechanistically, this occurs as the Centre of Mass (COM) moves further over the stance leg. Since the size of the base of support constrains the COM, an associated increase in step width (SW) would be expected to maintain stability. This study tested the effects of TL on SW and KAM in healthy participants (n = 21) who performed normal and 6° TL walks. The latter was controlled via audio-visual biofeedback. We found two distinct gait strategies in TL walk: widening the step width substantially ( > 50%) to permit an increase in the COM displacement (WSW, n = 13), or maintaining a baseline SW and minimally displacing the COM by moving the hip/pelvic complex in the opposite direction (NSW, n = 8). WSW doubled SW (11.3 ± 2.4 v. 24.7 ± 5.5 cm, p < .0001), NSW did not change SW (12.2 ± 2.8 v. 13.7 ± 4.7 cm, p > .05). These two distinct gait strategies resulted in unique patterns of KAM reduction across the stance phase. NSW reduced KAM impulse significantly in the initial half (0.08 ± 0.02 v. 0.06 ± 0.02, p =.04) but not in the later stance phase (0.07 ± 0.02 v. 0.07 ± 0.04, p > .05). WSW reduced KAM significantly in both initial (0.11 ± 0.03 v. 0.08 ± 0.04, p < .001) and later stance phase (0.09 ± 0.02 v. 0.06 ± 0.03, p < .001). KAM peak results followed the pattern of impulse. This study has revealed two distinct mechanisms for increasing lateral trunk lean which can be used to explain discrepancies in past research and in the future could be used to individualise gait re-training strategies.


Anderson, J., King, S., Przybyla, A., Ranganath, L., & Barton, G. (2018). Reduction of frontal plane knee load caused by lateral trunk lean depends on step width. Gait and Posture, 61, 483-487.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 20, 2018
Online Publication Date Feb 20, 2018
Publication Date 2018-03
Deposit Date Mar 21, 2018
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Gait and Posture
Print ISSN 0966-6362
Electronic ISSN 1879-2219
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 61
Pages 483-487
Keywords Gait retraining; Trunk sway; Knee abduction moment; Step width; Osteoarthritis
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Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: Reduction of frontal plane knee load caused by lateral trunk lean depends on step width; Journal Title: Gait & Posture; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version:; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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