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Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Malnutrition Using 3 Scoring Systems Among Outpatients With Heart Failure: A Comparison With Body Mass Index

Sze, Shirley; Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Kazmi, Syed; Rigby, Alan; Cleland, John G.F.; Wong, Kenneth; Clark, Andrew Lawrence

Authors

Shirley Sze

Pierpaolo Pellicori

Syed Kazmi

Alan Rigby

John G.F. Cleland

Kenneth Wong

Andrew Lawrence Clark



Contributors

Alan Rigby
Other

Abstract

Objectives
The authors sought to report the prevalence, clinical associations, and prognostic consequences of malnutrition in outpatients with heart failure (HF).

Background
Malnutrition may be common in HF and associated with adverse outcomes, but few data exist.

Methods
We applied the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) to consecutive patients referred with suspected HF to a clinic serving a local population (n = 550,000).

Results
Of 4,021 patients enrolled, HF was confirmed in 3,386 (61% men; median age: 75 years; interquartile range [IQR]: 67 to 81 years, median N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]: 1,103 ng/l [IQR: 415 to 2,631 ng/l]). Left ventricular ejection fraction was 4, and PNI ≤38, 6.7%, 10.0%, and 7.5% patients were moderately or severely malnourished, respectively; 57% were at least mildly malnourished by at least 1 score. Worse scores were most strongly related to older age, lower body mass index, worse symptoms and renal function, atrial fibrillation, anemia, and reduced mobility. During a median follow-up of 1,573 days (IQR: 702 to 2,799 days), 1,723 (51%) patients died. For patients who were moderately or severely malnourished, 1-year mortality was 28% for CONUT, 41% for GNRI, and 36% for PNI, compared with 9% for those with mild malnutrition or normal nutritional status. A model including only age, urea, and logNT-proBNP, predicted 1-year survival (C-statistic: 0.719) and was slightly improved by adding nutritional indices (up to 0.724; p < 0.001) but not body mass index.

Conclusions
Malnutrition is common among outpatients with HF and is strongly related to increased mortality.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jun 1, 2018
Print ISSN 2213-1779
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 6
Issue 6
Pages 476-486
APA6 Citation Sze, S., Pellicori, P., Kazmi, S., Rigby, A., Cleland, J. G., Wong, K., & Clark, A. L. (2018). Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Malnutrition Using 3 Scoring Systems Among Outpatients With Heart Failure: A Comparison With Body Mass Index. JACC: Heart Failure, 6(6), 476-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2018.02.018
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2018.02.018
Keywords BMI; CONUT; GNRI; Heart failure; Malnutrition; Mortality; PNI
Publisher URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213177918302233?via%3Dihub
Copyright Statement © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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Copyright Statement
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Copyright Statement
© 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/





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