Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors, hormones, and liver markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Javed, Zeeshan; Papageorgiou, Maria; Deshmukh, Harshal; Kilpatrick, Eric; Mann, Vincent; Corless, Lynsey; Abouda, George; Rigby, Alan S.; Atkin, Stephen; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat


Zeeshan Javed

Maria Papageorgiou

Eric Kilpatrick

Vincent Mann

Lynsey Corless

George Abouda

Stephen Atkin


© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic-fatty-liver disease (NAFLD). Vitamin D supplementation may exert positive effects on liver biochemistry in patients with NAFLD; however, its effects on PCOS are unknown. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study explored the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), weight, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, glucose levels, insulin levels, the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), hormones (free androgen index (FAI), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and liver markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hyaluronic acid (HA), N-terminal pro-peptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP), tissue inhibitor of metallo-proteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score). Forty women with PCOS were recruited and randomized to vitamin D (3200 IU) or placebo daily for 3 months. All outcomes were measured at baseline and 3 months follow-up (FU). Greater increases in vitamin D levels were shown in the supplementation group (vitamin D, baseline: 25.6 ± 11.4 nmol/L, FU: 90.4 ± 19.5 nmol/L vs. placebo, baseline: 30.9 ± 11.1 nmol/L, FU: 47.6 ± 20.5 nmol/L, p < 0.001). Between groups comparisons (% baseline change) revealed significant differences in ALT (p = 0.042) and a weak effect indicating a greater reduction in the HOMA-IR in the vitamin D group (p = 0.051). No further between group differences were seen in other cardiovascular risk factor, liver markers, or hormones. This study supports beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on liver markers and modest improvements in insulin sensitivity in vitamin D deficient women with PCOS.


Javed, Z., Papageorgiou, M., Deshmukh, H., Kilpatrick, E., Mann, V., Corless, L., …Sathyapalan, T. (2019). A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors, hormones, and liver markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Nutrients, 11(1), 188.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 15, 2019
Online Publication Date Jan 17, 2019
Publication Date Jan 17, 2019
Deposit Date Jan 16, 2019
Publicly Available Date Jan 18, 2019
Journal Nutrients
Print ISSN 2072-6643
Electronic ISSN 2072-6643
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 1
Article Number 188
Pages 188
Keywords Polycystic ovary syndrome; Vitamin D; Liver markers; Cardiovascular risk factors; Hormones
Public URL
Publisher URL


Article (568 Kb)

Copyright Statement
© 2018 by the authors. Submitted for possible open access publication under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

You might also like

Downloadable Citations