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Sediment Transport of Fine Sand to Fine Gravel on Transverse Bed Slopes in Rotating Annular Flume Experiments

Baar, Anne W.; de Smit, Jaco; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J.; Kleinhans, Maarten G.


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Dr Anne Baar
Post-doctoral Research Associate

Jaco de Smit

Wim S. J. Uijttewaal

Maarten G. Kleinhans


Large‐scale morphology, in particular meander bend depth, bar dimensions, and bifurcation dynamics, are greatly affected by the deflection of sediment transport on transverse bed slopes due to gravity and by secondary flows. Overestimating the transverse bed slope effect in morphodynamic models leads to flattening of the morphology, while underestimating leads to unrealistically steep bars and banks and a higher braiding index downstream. However, existing transverse bed slope predictors are based on a small set of experiments with a minor range of flow conditions and sediment sizes, and in practice models are calibrated on measured morphology. The objective of this research is to experimentally quantify the transverse bed slope effect for a large range of near‐bed flow conditions with varying secondary flow intensity, sediment sizes (0.17–4 mm), sediment transport mode, and bed state to test existing predictors. We conducted over 200 experiments in a rotating annular flume with counterrotating floor, which allows control of the secondary flow intensity separate from the streamwise flow velocity. Flow velocity vectors were determined with a calibrated analytical model accounting for rough bed conditions. We isolated separate effects of all important parameters on the transverse slope. Resulting equilibrium transverse slopes show a clear trend with varying sediment mobilities and secondary flow intensities that deviate from known predictors depending on Shields number, and strongly depend on bed state and sediment transport mode. Fitted functions are provided for application in morphodynamic modeling


Baar, A. W., de Smit, J., Uijttewaal, W. S. J., & Kleinhans, M. G. (2018). Sediment Transport of Fine Sand to Fine Gravel on Transverse Bed Slopes in Rotating Annular Flume Experiments. Water Resources Research, 54(1), 19-45.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 17, 2017
Online Publication Date Jan 4, 2018
Publication Date 2018-01
Deposit Date Dec 6, 2019
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Water Resources Research
Print ISSN 0043-1397
Electronic ISSN 1944-7973
Publisher American Geophysical Union
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 54
Issue 1
Pages 19-45
Keywords Transverse slope; Sediment transport; Annular flume; Experiments; Bend flow
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Copyright Statement
© 2017. The Authors.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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