The content and direction of policy can be impacted upon by broader political and economic influences that are of central concern to the government in office. With regard to education, the concepts of inclusion and SEND are at the forefront of professional pedagogy and provision. These concepts, although well-established educational practices, may be impacted by these influences.
This article has two aims. Firstly, it will identify and critically evaluate potential factors that may have an impact upon the implementation of these concepts. This analysis will focus on the effects of national and international financial instability, the standards agenda and the use of attainment data. The second aim is to critically examine existing and new models of SEND and evaluate how they may be affected by broader political and economic influences and thus reflect current political values. This article will also present a table that summarises each model of SEND and the political and economic influences that may impact upon them.
A conclusion is drawn that the potential to achieve inclusive educational practice is affected, not by the models of SEND impacting upon policy and practice, but by political and economic influences acting at both national and international levels.
Key words: inclusion, special educational needs, disabilities, medical model, social model, biopsychosocial model, state influenced market model, financial crisis model
Rolfe, S. (2020). Models of SEND: the impact of political and economic influences on policy and provision. British Journal of Special Education, 46(4), 423-444. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12284