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Analysis of emerging contaminants: A case study of the underground and drinking water samples in Chandigarh, India

Vashisht, Devika; Kumar, Amit; Mehta, Surinder Kumar; Ibhadon, Alex


Devika Vashisht

Amit Kumar

Surinder Kumar Mehta

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Dr Alex Ibhadon
Reader, Catalysis and Reactor Engineering for Energy Generation and Chemical Synthesis


The present report deals with the analysis of emerging contaminants and the quality of drinking and underground water supply in Chandigarh, India. A water sampling monitoring and analysis was conducted by collecting a total of 54 samples of underground & drinking water of Chandigarh to analyse the health risk associated with the spread of emerging contaminants in the water sources. The quality of water samples was also assessed by measuring the colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids/ salts (TDS) and hardness. For the estimation of the emerging contaminants (Endosulphan (ES) and Hexachlorohexane (HCH)) in the water samples, an extraction procedure was carried out by dispersive liquid-liquid extraction method followed by analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The levels of ES and HCH obtained were compared with the drinking water standards of the Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 10500). The levels of HCH and ES in all the water samples tested were found to be below the detection limit. It cannot be denied that the industrial discharge and other agencies seems to be complying with the regulations. The Initiatives by the Central and State Govt of India seems to have created sensitivity and awareness among the public specifically among the farmers. The limit of detection (LOD) were 1.0 × 10−3 and 2.4 × 10−3 ppm for ES and, HCH respectively. However, some water pollution indicators such as TDS, EC, DO and total hardness were found to exceed the limits specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).


Vashisht, D., Kumar, A., Mehta, S. K., & Ibhadon, A. (2020). Analysis of emerging contaminants: A case study of the underground and drinking water samples in Chandigarh, India. Environmental advances, 1, Article 100002.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 14, 2020
Online Publication Date Jun 23, 2020
Publication Date 2020-09
Deposit Date Jun 8, 2020
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Environmental Advances
Print ISSN 2666-7657
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 1
Article Number 100002
Keywords Emerging contaminants; Chandigarh; Endosulphan; Hexachlorohexane; Underground water
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