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1000 Norms Project: Protocol of a cross-sectional study cataloging human variation

McKay, Marnee J.; Baldwin, Jennifer N.; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Hiller, Claire E.; Nightingale, Elizabeth J.; Moloney, Niamh A.; Quinlan, Kate G.; Pourkazemi, Fereshteh; Sman, Amy D.; Nicholson, Leslie L.; Mousavi, Seyed J.; Rose, Kristy; Raymond, Jacqueline; Mackey, Martin G.; Chard, Angus; Hübscher, Markus; Wegener, Caleb; Fong Yan, Alycia; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Burns, Joshua; on behalf of the 1000 Norms Project Consortium


Marnee J. McKay

Jennifer N. Baldwin

Paulo Ferreira

Milena Simic

Claire E. Hiller

Elizabeth J. Nightingale

Niamh A. Moloney

Kate G. Quinlan

Fereshteh Pourkazemi

Amy D. Sman

Leslie L. Nicholson

Seyed J. Mousavi

Kristy Rose

Jacqueline Raymond

Martin G. Mackey

Angus Chard

Markus Hübscher

Caleb Wegener

Alycia Fong Yan

Kathryn M. Refshauge

Joshua Burns

on behalf of the 1000 Norms Project Consortium


Background Clinical decision-making regarding diagnosis and management largely depends on comparison with healthy or ‘normal’ values. Physiotherapists and researchers therefore need access to robust patient-centred outcome measures and appropriate reference values. However there is a lack of high-quality reference data for many clinical measures. The aim of the 1000 Norms Project is to generate a freely accessible database of musculoskeletal and neurological reference values representative of the healthy population across the lifespan. Methods/design In 2012 the 1000 Norms Project Consortium defined the concept of ‘normal’, established a sampling strategy and selected measures based on clinical significance, psychometric properties and the need for reference data. Musculoskeletal and neurological items tapping the constructs of dexterity, balance, ambulation, joint range of motion, strength and power, endurance and motor planning will be collected in this cross-sectional study. Standardised questionnaires will evaluate quality of life, physical activity, and musculoskeletal health. Saliva DNA will be analysed for the ACTN3 genotype (‘gene for speed’). A volunteer cohort of 1000 participants aged 3 to 100 years will be recruited according to a set of self-reported health criteria. Descriptive statistics will be generated, creating tables of mean values and standard deviations stratified for age and gender. Quantile regression equations will be used to generate age charts and age-specific centile values. Discussion This project will be a powerful resource to assist physiotherapists and clinicians across all areas of healthcare to diagnose pathology, track disease progression and evaluate treatment response. This reference dataset will also contribute to the development of robust patient-centred clinical trial outcome measures.


McKay, M. J., Baldwin, J. N., Ferreira, P., Simic, M., Vanicek, N., Hiller, C. E., …on behalf of the 1000 Norms Project Consortium. (2016). 1000 Norms Project: Protocol of a cross-sectional study cataloging human variation. Physiotherapy, 102(1), 50-56.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date Jan 22, 2015
Publication Date Mar 1, 2016
Deposit Date Jul 15, 2015
Publicly Available Date Jul 15, 2015
Journal Physiotherapy
Print ISSN 0031-9406
Electronic ISSN 1873-1465
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 102
Issue 1
Pages 50-56
Keywords Reference values; Physical assessment; Healthy; Lifespan
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information This is a description of an article which has been published in: Physiotherapy, 2015, v.102 issue 1.


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