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The Uptake of Sporopollenin Exine Capsules and Associated Bioavailability of Adsorbed Oestradiol in Selected Aquatic Invertebrates

Chapman, Emma; Meichanetzoglou, Aimilia; Boa, Andrew N.; Hetjens, Hanne; Faetsch, Sonja; Teuchies, Johnny; Höss, Sebastian; Moore, Dean; Bervoets, Lieven; Kay, Paul; Heise, Susanne; Walker, Paul; Rotchell, Jeanette M.


Emma Chapman

Aimilia Meichanetzoglou

Hanne Hetjens

Sonja Faetsch

Johnny Teuchies

Sebastian Höss

Dean Moore

Lieven Bervoets

Paul Kay

Susanne Heise

Paul Walker


Lycopodium clavatum sporopollenin exine capsules (SpECs) are known to both adsorb and absorb chemicals. The aim of the present work was to determine whether oestradiol (E2) is ‘bioavailable’ to bioindicator species, either pre-adsorbed to, or in the presence of, SpECs. SpEC uptake was confirmed for Daphnia magna and Dreissena bugensis. E2 levels varied among treatments for Caenorhabditis elegans though there was no relationship to SpEC load. E2 was not detected in D. bugensis tissues. Expression changes of general stress and E2-specific genes were measured. For C. elegans, NHR-14 expression suggested that SpECs modulate E2 impacts, but not general health responses. For D. magna, SpECs alone and with E2 changed Vtg1 and general stress responses. For D. bugensis, SpECS were taken up but no E2 or change in gene expression was detected after exposure to E2 and/or SpECs. The present study is the first to investigate SpECs and bound chemical dynamics.


Chapman, E., Meichanetzoglou, A., Boa, A. N., Hetjens, H., Faetsch, S., Teuchies, J., …Rotchell, J. M. (2021). The Uptake of Sporopollenin Exine Capsules and Associated Bioavailability of Adsorbed Oestradiol in Selected Aquatic Invertebrates. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 107, 876–882.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 22, 2021
Online Publication Date Aug 30, 2021
Publication Date 2021-11
Deposit Date Aug 31, 2021
Publicly Available Date Sep 1, 2021
Journal Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Print ISSN 0007-4861
Electronic ISSN 1432-0800
Publisher Springer (part of Springer Nature)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 107
Pages 876–882
Keywords Sporopollenin; Oestrogen; Uptake; Bioavailability; Gene expression
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Copyright Statement
© The Author(s) 2021.<br /> Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

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