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Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied

Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

Authors

Maciej Hanczakowski

Giuliana Mazzoni G.Mazzoni@hull.ac.uk



Abstract

A reduction in false alarms to critical lures is observed in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) when distinctive information is presented at encoding. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reduction. According to the monitoring theory (e.g., the distinctiveness heuristic), lack of diagnostic recollection serves as a basis for discarding non-presented lures. According to the encoding theory, presenting distinctive information at study leads to impoverished relational processing, which results in a reduction in memorial information elicited by critical lures. In the present study a condition was created in which the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was precluded by associating, within the same study, lures with distinctive information in a context different from the study session. Under that condition reduction in false alarms to distinctive critical lures was still observed. This result supports the predictions of the encoding theory. However, when in the same study the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was not precluded, reductions in false alarms to unrelated lures were also observed when distinctive information was presented at study, indicating that both mechanisms are likely to contribute to the rejection of false memories.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Apr 1, 2011
Journal MEMORY
Print ISSN 0965-8211
Electronic ISSN 1464-0686
Publisher Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 19
Issue 3
Pages 280-289
APA6 Citation Hanczakowski, M., & Mazzoni, G. (2011). Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied. Memory, 19(3), (280-289). doi:10.1080/09658211.2011.558514. ISSN 0965-8211
DOI https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2011.558514
Keywords Distinctiveness heuristic; False memory; Retrieval monitoring; Relational processing
Publisher URL https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09658211.2011.558514
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