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Metabolic risk is associated with sociodemographic characteristics in adolescents from both rural and urban regions from southern Brazil

de Souza, Sonimar; Francisco de Castro Silveira, João; Marques, Kelin Cristina; Gaya, Anelise Reis; Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Renner, Jane Dagmar Pollo; Hobkirk, James Philip; Carroll, Sean; Reuter, Cézane Priscila


Sonimar de Souza

João Francisco de Castro Silveira

Kelin Cristina Marques

Anelise Reis Gaya

Silvia Isabel Rech Franke

Jane Dagmar Pollo Renner

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Dr James Hobkirk
Lecturer in Physiology & Pathophysiology & Honorary Medical Scientist

Cézane Priscila Reuter


Background: The prevalence of several cardiovascular metabolic disorders are increasingly cause for concern in adolescents worldwide. Given the complex interrelations between metabolic risk (MR) and sociodemographic variables, the present study aims to examine the association between the presence of MR with sociodemographic characteristics (sex, skin color, residential area, and parental socioeconomic status) in adolescents from Southern Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with 1,152 adolescents (507 males) aged between 12 and 17 years. MR was assessed using a continuous score (cMetS; sum of Z-scores of the following variables: waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C, inverse], triglycerides [TG], and estimated cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF, inverse]). Poisson regression was used to examine associations between sociodemographic variables with the dichotomized cMetS and separate metabolic variables. The results were expressed with prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The presence of MR (evaluated by the cMetS) was observed in 8.7% of adolescents. Higher MR was less prevalent among non-white adolescents (PR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93; 0.99). Adolescents living in rural areas had a lower prevalence of the following metabolic variables; low HDL-C (PR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.94; 0.97), elevated TG (PR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92; 0.99), elevated glucose (PR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95; 0.98), and low CRF levels (PR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.85; 0.92). Whereas, SBP was higher in those living in rural areas (PR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.17). In girls, there was a higher prevalence of raised TG (PR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02; 1.10) and lower levels of CRF (PR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.16; 1.24), but a lower prevalence of elevated glucose (PR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.97; 0.99). Conclusion: Higher MR prevalence was lower in those self-reporting non-white skin color and selected MR factors were less prevalent in those living in rural areas. The identification of groups at higher MR is important for early prevention and monitoring strategies for both Type 2 diabetes and later cardiovascular disease. Future studies should be conducted to assess the socio-cultural aspects of the relationships between MR and socio-cultural and lifestyle variables.


de Souza, S., Francisco de Castro Silveira, J., Marques, K. C., Gaya, A. R., Franke, S. I. R., Renner, J. D. P., …Reuter, C. P. (2022). Metabolic risk is associated with sociodemographic characteristics in adolescents from both rural and urban regions from southern Brazil. BMC Pediatrics, 22(1), Article 324.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 23, 2022
Online Publication Date Jun 2, 2022
Publication Date Jun 2, 2022
Deposit Date Mar 14, 2023
Publicly Available Date Mar 16, 2023
Journal BMC Pediatrics
Print ISSN 1471-2431
Electronic ISSN 1471-2431
Publisher BioMed Central
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Issue 1
Article Number 324
Keywords Risk factors; Cardiovascular diseases; Rural health; Urban health; Metabolic syndrome
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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which<br /> permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the<br /> original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or<br /> other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line<br /> to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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