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Dynamic ocean redox conditions during the end-Triassic mass extinction: Evidence from pyrite framboids

Li, Jing; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li; Bond, David P.G.; Song, Haijun; Du, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Chu, Daoliang; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan


Jing Li

Huyue Song

Li Tian

Haijun Song

Yong Du

Chi Zhang

Daoliang Chu

Paul B. Wignall

Jinnan Tong


The end-Triassic (∼201 Mya) records one of the five largest mass extinction events of the Phanerozoic. Extinction losses were coincident with large igneous province volcanism in the form of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) and major carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), suggesting a link between these phenomena. Marine anoxia has been implicated as a causal factor in the crisis, but there remains some uncertainty regarding the role of marine redox changes in marine extinction phases because both intensity and duration of marine anoxia are poorly constrained. We employ high resolution pyrite framboid size-frequency analysis at two Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) boundary sections: Kuhjoch in Austria (the Tr-J Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point; GSSP) and St. Audrie's Bay in England (former GSSP candidate) in order to further evaluate the role of marine anoxia in the end-Triassic mass extinction (ETME). The St. Audrie's Bay section records predominantly anoxic conditions punctuated by weakly oxygenated (dysoxic) conditions through the Tr-J transition, even during shallow-water intervals. Kuhjoch experienced both anoxic and dysoxic conditions during the ETME but became better oxygenated near the Tr-J boundary. Marine anoxia is therefore implicated in the extinction at both locations. A similar redox history is known from the Central European Basin, Western Tethys and Panthalassa, where marine anoxia developed in the lead up to the ETME prior to reoxygenation around the Tr-J boundary.


Li, J., Song, H., Tian, L., Bond, D. P., Song, H., Du, Y., …Tong, J. (2022). Dynamic ocean redox conditions during the end-Triassic mass extinction: Evidence from pyrite framboids. Global and planetary change, 218, Article 103981.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 26, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 30, 2022
Publication Date Nov 1, 2022
Deposit Date Nov 1, 2022
Publicly Available Date Oct 31, 2023
Journal Global and Planetary Change
Print ISSN 0921-8181
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 218
Article Number 103981
Keywords Marine anoxia; Central atlantic magmatic province; End-Triassic mass extinction; Pyrite framboids
Public URL
Additional Information This article is maintained by: Elsevier; Article Title: Dynamic ocean redox conditions during the end-Triassic mass extinction: Evidence from pyrite framboids; Journal Title: Global and Planetary Change; CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version:; Content Type: article; Copyright: © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.