Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Measuring time perspective in adolescents : can you get the right answer by asking the wrong questions?

Perry, John L.; McKay, Michael T.; Worrell, Frank C.; Živkovič, Urška; Mello, Zena R.; Musil, Bojan


John L. Perry

Michael T. McKay

Frank C. Worrell

Urška Živkovič

Zena R. Mello

Bojan Musil


Time perspective continues to evolve as a psychological construct. The extant literature suggests that higher future orientation and lower present orientation are associated with better developmental outcomes. However, the extant literature also suggests that issues remain with the measurement of the construct. Recently, a 25-item version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-25) was suggested for use based on high internal consistency estimates and good discriminant validity of scores in a sample of Italian adolescents. However, the genesis of this scale is uncertain. The present study examined the factorial validity, reliability, and concurrent validity of ZTPI-25 scores in Slovenian, American, and British adolescents. Results revealed satisfactory concurrent validity based on correlations with measures used in the development of the full ZTPI. However, internal consistency and factorial validity of scores were unsatisfactory. The present study questions the use of the ZTPI-25 with adolescents in the context of conceptual and measurement issues more broadly.


Perry, J. L., McKay, M. T., Worrell, F. C., Živkovič, U., Mello, Z. R., & Musil, B. (2015). Measuring time perspective in adolescents : can you get the right answer by asking the wrong questions?. Personality and individual differences, 78, 53-57.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 14, 2015
Online Publication Date Feb 7, 2015
Publication Date 2015-05
Deposit Date Mar 1, 2016
Publicly Available Date Nov 23, 2017
Journal Personality and individual differences
Print ISSN 0191-8869
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 78
Pages 53-57
Keywords Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; Exploratory structural equation modelling; Reliability; Concurrent validity
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Authors' accepted manuscript of article published in: Personality and individual differences, 2015, v.78


You might also like

Downloadable Citations