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Improving the reporting of primary care research: Consensus Reporting Items for Studies in Primary Care - the CRISP Statement

Phillips, William R; Sturgiss, Elizabeth; Glasziou, Paul; Olde Hartman, Tim; Orkin, Aaron; Prathivadi, Pallavi; Reeve, Joanne; Russell, Grant M; van Weel, Chris


William R Phillips

Elizabeth Sturgiss

Paul Glasziou

Tim Olde Hartman

Aaron Orkin

Pallavi Prathivadi

Grant M Russell

Chris van Weel


Primary care (PC) is a unique clinical specialty and research discipline with its own perspectives and methods. PC research employs various research methods and study designs to investigate myriad topics. The diversity of PC presents challenges for reporting. Despite the proliferation of reporting guidelines, none focuses specifically on the needs of PC. The Consensus Reporting Items for Studies in Primary Care (CRISP) Checklist guides reporting of PC research to include the information needed by the diverse PC community, including practitioners, patients, and communities. CRISP aims to complement current guidelines to enhance the reporting, dissemination, and application of PC research findings and results. Prior CRISP studies documented opportunities to improve PC research reporting. Our surveys of the international, interdisciplinary, and interprofessional PC community identified essential items to include in PC research reports. A two-round Delphi study identified a consensus list of items considered necessary. The CRISP Checklist outlines 24 items that describe the research team, patients, study participants, health conditions, clinical encounters, care teams, interventions, study measures, settings of care, and implementation of findings/results in PC. Not every item applies to every study design or topic. The CRISP Checklist informs the design and reporting of 1) studies done by PC researchers, 2) studies done by other investigators in PC populations and settings, and 3) studies intended for application in PC practice. Improved reporting of the context of the clinical services and the process of research is critical to interpreting and applying study findings/results to diverse populations and varied settings in PC.


Phillips, W. R., Sturgiss, E., Glasziou, P., Olde Hartman, T., Orkin, A., Prathivadi, P., …van Weel, C. (in press). Improving the reporting of primary care research: Consensus Reporting Items for Studies in Primary Care - the CRISP Statement. Annals of Family Medicine,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 31, 2023
Deposit Date Jun 1, 2023
Journal Annals of Family Medicine
Print ISSN 1544-1709
Publisher Annals of Family Medicine
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Public URL