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Woody biomass waste derivatives in decarbonised blast furnace ironmaking process

Wang, R. Q.; Jiang, L.; Wang, Y. D.; Font-Palma, C.; Skoulou, V.; Roskilly, A. P.


R. Q. Wang

L. Jiang

Y. D. Wang

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Dr Vicky Skoulou
Graduate Research Director (GRD) of School of Engineering ; Senior Lecturer (Assoc. Prof.) in Chemical Engineering-Bioenergy ; PI of the B3: Biomass Waste- BioenergH2- Biochars Challenge Group of PGRs and PDRAs

A. P. Roskilly


Modern ironmaking process relies significantly on fossil-related fuels, which ultimately results in the enormous CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. Biomass of plant origin, as a carbon-neutral energy source, has been considered as an alternative to fossil-based reducing agents such as coke. This study aims to investigate the potential of three woody biomass waste derivatives produced from biomass waste pyrolysis and gasification, namely charcoal, bio-oil, and bio-syngas, as the reducing agents in blast furnace. A model based on heat and mass balance and Gibbs free energy minimisation is proposed to simulate an ironmaking process with assistance of these derivatives. The effects of specific composition of biomass waste derivatives on process operation, CO2 emissions, and coke replacement are explored. Also the effects of H2-rich gas produced from biomass waste gasification on the blast furnace operation are estimated. Results indicate that reactions of woody biomass waste derivatives in blast furnace are complex and greatly dependent on composition. When charcoal has a higher carbon content, lower CO2 concentration is found from the top gas. The higher content of hydrogen in bio-oil will inhibit further reduction in CO2 emissions. Bio-syngas with H2/CO ratio of 1.3 proves to have a remarkable potential to reduce CO2 emissions. From the aspects of available biomass waste resources across the world, woody biomass waste derivatives as reducing agents are more suitable for countries with the limited pig iron production. This study provides a reference on the future of moving forward the decarbonised ironmaking by using woody biomass waste derivatives.


Wang, R. Q., Jiang, L., Wang, Y. D., Font-Palma, C., Skoulou, V., & Roskilly, A. P. (2024). Woody biomass waste derivatives in decarbonised blast furnace ironmaking process. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 199, Article 114465.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 25, 2024
Online Publication Date Apr 30, 2024
Publication Date Jul 1, 2024
Deposit Date May 7, 2024
Publicly Available Date May 1, 2025
Journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Print ISSN 1364-0321
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 199
Article Number 114465
Keywords Woody biomass waste derivative; Reducing agent; CO2 emissions; Blast furnace; Hydrogen
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