Drawing from the research of green supply chain management and corporate social responsibility, this research proposes a hierarchical structure of sustainable supply chain management and develops a multi-item measurement scale to reflect the specific management practices of sustainable supply chain management. In this research, sustainable supply chain management is operationalised as a third-order factor reflected by three second-order factors, namely external green supply chain management, internal green supply chain management and corporate social responsibility. Utilising a rigorous, multi-step scale development method and data from 293 Chinese manufacturers, this research validates a 31-item measurement scale and approves the proposed third-order structure. The results confirm the multidimensionality of sustainable supply chain management, which suggests that it is necessary for the future researches to consider both environmental and social aspects. The valid measurement scales provide managers with a “to do list” to make the specific business decisions to achieve sustainable development in the supply chain.