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Sub-types of nonbelieved memories reveal differential outcomes of challenges to memories

Scoboria, Alan; Nash, Robert A.; Mazzoni, Giuliana


Alan Scoboria

Robert A. Nash

Giuliana Mazzoni


Nonbelieved memories (NBMs) highlight the independence between distinct metamemorial judgements that contribute to the experience of remembering. Initial definitions of NBMs portrayed them as involving the withdrawal of belief in occurrence despite sustained recollection. While people rate belief for their NBMs as weaker than recollection, the average difference is too small to support the idea that autobiographical belief is completely withdrawn in all cases. Furthermore, autobiographical belief and recollection ratings vary considerably across NBMs. In two studies, we reanalysed data from prior studies to examine whether NBM reports reflect a single category or multiple sub-categories using cluster analytic methods. In Study 1, we identified three sub-types of NBMs. In Study 2 we incorporated the concept of belief in accuracy, and found that two of the clusters from Study 1 split into two clusters apiece. All clusters were characterised by higher recollection than belief in occurrence ratings, and clusters were differentiated by the degree of difference between these variables. In both studies the clusters were discriminated by a number of memory characteristic ratings and by reasons reported as leading to the alteration of belief. Implications for understanding the remembering of past events and predicting the creation of NBMs are discussed.


Scoboria, A., Nash, R. A., & Mazzoni, G. (2017). Sub-types of nonbelieved memories reveal differential outcomes of challenges to memories. Memory, 25(7), 876-889.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 14, 2016
Online Publication Date Jul 11, 2016
Publication Date Aug 9, 2017
Deposit Date Dec 16, 2016
Publicly Available Date Dec 16, 2016
Journal Memory
Print ISSN 0965-8211
Electronic ISSN 1464-0686
Publisher Routledge
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 25
Issue 7
Pages 876-889
Keywords Nonbelieved memory; Subtype; Cluster analysis; Belief in occurrence; Accuracy; Memory
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Additional Information This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Memory on 11/07/2016, available online:


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