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Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review

Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R.; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin


Jacki Stansfeld

Charlotte R. Stoner

Jennifer Wenborn

Myrra Vernooij-Dassen

Professor Esme Moniz-Cook
Professor of Clinical Psychology of Ageing and Dementia Care Research/ Dementia Research Work Group Lead

Martin Orrell


Background: Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. Method: A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Results: 12 positive outcome measures and 6 validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. Conclusions: There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to wellbeing.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2017-08
Journal International psychogeriatrics
Print ISSN 1041-6102
Electronic ISSN 1741-203x
Publisher Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 29
Issue 8
Pages 1281-1296
Institution Citation Stansfeld, J., Stoner, C. R., Wenborn, J., Vernooij-Dassen, M., Moniz-Cook, E., & Orrell, M. (2017). Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review. International Psychogeriatrics, 29(8), 1281-1296. doi:10.1017/S1041610217000655
Keywords Dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Carers, Rating scales
Publisher URL
Additional Information This article has been published in a revised form in International psychogeriatrics This version is free to view and download for private research and study only. Not for re-distribution, re-sale or use in derivative works. © copyright holder.


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