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(Im)mobility, 'hard to reach communities' and the practice of citizenship education

Ploner, Josef; Kakos, Michalis


Josef Ploner

Michalis Kakos


Our aim in this short conceptual chapter is to explore current understandings of the designation Hard to Reach when applied to communities, and issues arising from the development of interventions targeting such groups. By exploring the meanings attributed to the term in relevant literature, we will attempt to identify the ambiguities present in the definitions and understandings of Hard to Reach, also seeking to summarise those ambiguities that raise key questions about the designation. We will then associate these questions with conceptualisations of citizenship and citizenship education, and explore their implications for our understanding of the relationship between Hard to Reach spaces and the mainstream, and for the implementation of citizenship education interventions designed within the mainstream, intended for Hard to Reach groups.

Journal Beyond us versus them
Peer Reviewed Not Peer Reviewed
Volume 1618
ISBN 9783838906188
APA6 Citation Ploner, J., & Kakos, M. (Im)mobility, 'hard to reach communities' and the practice of citizenship education
Keywords Hard to reach
Publisher URL Published book available at


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