University of Hull logo

Hate in the classroom: Free expression, Holocaust denial, and liberal education

Cohen‐Almagor, Raphael



This article is concerned with a specific type of hate speech: Holocaust denial. It is concerned with the expression of this idea by educators. Should we allow Holocaust deniers to teach in schools? This article attempts to answer this question through a close look at the Canadian experience. First, I will establish that Holocaust denial is a form of hate speech. Next, I will lay down the main premises of the argument and make some constructive distinctions that will guide our treatment of teachers who are Holocaust deniers. Finally, I will probe three cases - James Keegstra, Malcolm Ross, and Paul Fromm - and argue that hatemongers cannot assume the role of educators. Since democracy stands in principle for free interchange, for social continuity, it must develop a theory of knowledge which sees in knowledge the method by which one experience is made available in giving direction and meaning to another. ( John Dewey,

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Feb 1, 2008
Journal American journal of education
Print ISSN 0195-6744
Electronic ISSN 1549-6511
Publisher University of Chicago Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 114
Issue 2
Pages 215-241
Keywords Hate speech; Holocaust denial; Academic ethics; Education; Canada; James Keegstra; Malcolm Ross; Paul Fromm; Hatemongers as educators
Publisher URL
Additional Information Copy of article first published in American journal of education, 2008, v.114, issue 2