The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a potentially lethal response triggered by diverse forms of tissue injury and infection. When systemic inflammation is triggered by infection, the term sepsis is used. Understanding how inflammation is mediated and regulated is of enormous medical importance. We previously demonstrated that circulating inflammatory-relevant microRNAs (CIR-miRNAs) are candidate biomarkers for differentiating sepsis from SIRS. Here, we set out to determine how CIR-miRNA levels reflect SIRS severity and whether they derive from activated immune cells. Clinical disease severity scores and markers of red blood cell (RBC) damage or immune cell activation were correlated with CIR-miRNA levels in patients with SIRS and sepsis. The release of CIR-miRNAs modulated during SIRS was assessed in immune cell cultures. We show that severity of non-infective SIRS, but not sepsis is reflected in the levels of miR-378a-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-192-5p. These CIR-miRNA levels positively correlate with levels of the redox biomarker, peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx-1), which has previously been shown to be released by immune cells during inflammation. Furthermore, in vitro activated immune cells produce SIRS-associated miR-378a-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-192-5p. Our study furthers the understanding of the origin, role, and trafficking of CIR-miRNAs as potential regulators of inflammation.
Caserta, S., Mengozzi, M., Kern, F., Newbury, S. F., Ghezzi, P., & Llewelyn, M. J. (2018). Severity of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Affects the Blood Levels of Circulating Inflammatory-Relevant MicroRNAs. Frontiers in immunology, 8, https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01977