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Individual and Community-level Determinants of Antenatal HIV Testing in Zimbabwe

Magadi, Monica; Gazimbi, Martin Marufu


Monica Magadi

Martin Marufu Gazimbi


This study contributes to the dialogue on prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) through the use of HIV and antenatal care (ANC) integrated services. This was done by exploring the determinants of antenatal HIV testing in Zimbabwe. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to data for 8471 women from 406 clusters who gave birth within five years preceding Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005/6 and 2010/11. The results show that antenatal HIV testing is determined by a wide range of individual-level factors relating to women’s’ economic and demographic status as well as HIV-related factors, including HIV awareness and stigma within the community. Important individual-level enabling and perceived need factors included high socio-economic status, not having observed HIV related stigma and knowledge of HIV status (based on a previous HIV test), such that these groups of individuals have a significantly higher likelihood of being tested for HIV during pregnancy than their counterparts who had lower socio-economic status, had observed HIV-related stigma or did not know their HIV status. The results further revealed that community HIV awareness was important for improving antenatal HIV testing, while stigma was associated with reduced testing uptake. Most contextual community level factors did not have much effect on antenatal HIV testing. Therefore, policies should focus on individual-level predisposing and enabling factors to improve antenatal HIV testing in Zimbabwe.


Magadi, M., & Gazimbi, M. M. (2019). Individual and Community-level Determinants of Antenatal HIV Testing in Zimbabwe. Journal of biosocial science, 51(2), 203-224.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 18, 2018
Online Publication Date Mar 6, 2018
Publication Date 2019-03
Deposit Date Oct 5, 2020
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Journal of biosocial science
Print ISSN 0021-9320
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 51
Issue 2
Pages 203-224
Keywords Antenat HIV testing; Zimbabwe; Demographic and Health Surveys; Multilevel determinants
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