Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

The development and validation of the Adolescent Sport Drug Inventory (ASDI) among athletes from four continents

Nicholls, Adam R.; Levy, Andrew R.; Meir, Rudi; Sanctuary, Colin; Jones, Leigh; Baghurst, Timothy; Thompson, Mark A.; Perry, John L.


Profile Image

Professor Adam Nicholls
Professor of Psychology/ Leader of the Sport Psychology and Coaching Group

Andrew R. Levy

Rudi Meir

Colin Sanctuary

Leigh Jones

Timothy Baghurst

Mark A. Thompson

John L. Perry


A significant barrier to understanding the psycho-social antecedents of doping use among adolescent athletes is the lack of valid measures. In order to address this issue, the first aim of this paper was to develop and validate the Adolescent Sport Doping Inventory (ASDI) among adolescent athletes from Asia, Europe, North America, and Oceania. The second aim was to assess the construct validity of the ASDI. As such, this paper is divided into two parts. Part 1 relates to the development of the ASDI and contains two studies: Item Development (Study 1) and Factorial Validity (Study 2). Part 2 contains information on how the psycho-social variables measured in the ASDI are associated with situational temptation, and honesty (Study 3), maturation (Study 4), stress and coping (Study 5), and coaching (Study 6). In devising the ASDI, 19 different models were examined, which culminated in a 9-factor, 43-item ASDI. Coping, mastery-approach goals, and cognitive-social maturity were associated with doping attitudes. Caring motivational climates, strong coach-athlete relationships, and positive coach behaviors were associated with athletes being less susceptible towards doping, which provides construct validity for the ASDI. The ASDI is a valid tool to assess the psycho-social factors associated with doping among adolescent athletes. This questionnaire can be used to identify athletes who are the most at risk of doping, assess how the psycho-social factors associated with doping change over time, and to monitor the impact of anti-doping interventions for adolescent athletes.


Nicholls, A. R., Levy, A. R., Meir, R., Sanctuary, C., Jones, L., Baghurst, T., …Perry, J. L. (in press). The development and validation of the Adolescent Sport Drug Inventory (ASDI) among athletes from four continents. Psychological assessment,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 16, 2019
Online Publication Date Jul 18, 2019
Deposit Date May 30, 2019
Publicly Available Date May 31, 2019
Journal Psychological Assessment
Print ISSN 1040-3590
Electronic ISSN 1939-134X
Publisher American Psychological Association
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Clinical Psychology; Psychiatry and Mental health
Public URL
Publisher URL