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Magnesium ferrite spinels as anode modifier for the treatment of Congo red and energy recovery in a single chambered microbial fuel cell

Khan, Nishat; Anwer, Abdul Hakeem; Khan, Mohammad Danish; Azam, Ameer; Ibhadon, Alex; Khan, Mohammad Zain


Nishat Khan

Abdul Hakeem Anwer

Mohammad Danish Khan

Ameer Azam

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Dr Alex Ibhadon
Reader, Catalysis and Reactor Engineering for Energy Generation and Chemical Synthesis

Mohammad Zain Khan


© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Magnesium Ferrite (MgFe2O4) spinel structures prepared by a solid-state reaction was used as an anode modifier in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) treatment of Congo red dye. The performance of the reactors with unmodified stainless-steel mesh anode (CR-1) and MgFe2O4 coated stainless steel mesh anode (CR-2) were tested and compared followed by aerobic treatment. The peak power density was observed to be 295.936 (CR-1) and 430.336 mW/m2 (CR-2) revealing increased bioenergy output and better electron transfer in the reactor with the MgFe2O4 modified anode. The final decolourisation efficiencies were found to be 92.053% for CR-1 and 98.386% for CR-2. The formation of metabolites (diaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate, 1-(biphenyl-4-yl)-2-(naphthalene-2-yl) diazene, benzidine and phthalic acid, monoethyl ether) during the anaerobic-aerobic biotreatment of azo dye was confirmed using Gas chromatography coupled Mass spectrometry system. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed a uniform coating of MgFe2O4 on the anode surface with evidence of biofilm formation in the system. Electrochemical studies confirmed the superior performance of spinel coated anode with enhanced redox activity. In addition, the charge-discharge studies confirmed the high capacitive nature of the modified electrode improving the electrodes charge holding capacity. The study suggested an effective treatment strategy for the treatment of Congo red dye.


Khan, N., Anwer, A. H., Khan, M. D., Azam, A., Ibhadon, A., & Khan, M. Z. (in press). Magnesium ferrite spinels as anode modifier for the treatment of Congo red and energy recovery in a single chambered microbial fuel cell. Journal of hazardous materials, Article 124561.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 10, 2020
Online Publication Date Nov 14, 2020
Deposit Date Dec 12, 2020
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Journal of Hazardous Materials
Print ISSN 0304-3894
Electronic ISSN 1873-3336
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Article Number 124561
Keywords Activated sludge process; Azo dye; Bioelectrochemistry; Bioenergy; Ferrite spinel; Single chamber MFC
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