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Governing with multiple policy instrument types?

Moore, Brendan; Benson, David; Jordan, Andrew; Wurzel, Rüdiger K W; Zito, Anthony


Brendan Moore

David Benson

Andrew Jordan

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Professor Rudi Wurzel
Professor of Comparative European Politics and Jean Monnet Chair in European Union Studies.

Anthony Zito


Andrew Jordan

Viviane Gravey


The EU’s role in determining the overall goals of environmental policy is widely known and well understood. However, its role in determining the choice and use of implementing instruments at EU and national levels is not as well understood. Despite considerable discussion about the merits of ‘new’ instruments, this chapter finds that EU environmental policy is still mainly pursued via regulatory means. There have been circumstances in which the EU has actively explored and even adopted non-regulatory instruments, but they have only appeared very infrequently over the past 50 years. Indeed, policy makers are more likely to ‘govern by multiple instruments’ at the national level than at EU level, which raises new challenges in relation to political demands for greater packaging or ‘smart mixing’ of different instruments. For various reasons, regulation will remain the preferred instrument at EU level for the foreseeable future.


Moore, B., Benson, D., Jordan, A., Wurzel, R. K. W., & Zito, A. (2021). Governing with multiple policy instrument types?. In A. Jordan, & V. Gravey (Eds.), Environmental Policy in the EU Actors, Institutions and Processes. (4th). Abingdon: Routledge

Acceptance Date Nov 26, 2020
Online Publication Date May 6, 2021
Publication Date May 7, 2021
Deposit Date Dec 23, 2020
Publicly Available Date Nov 7, 2022
Publisher Routledge
Edition 4th
Book Title Environmental Policy in the EU Actors, Institutions and Processes
Chapter Number 17
ISBN 9781138392168; 9781138392144
Keywords Environmental policy, policy instruments, instrument mixes, EU, Member States
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©2021 The authors. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright holder

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