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Development and validity testing of a type 1 diabetes resource for 10-19-years old adolescents in China

Zhao, Xiaolei; Hilton, Andrea; Watson, Roger; Chen, Yanhua


Xiaolei Zhao

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Dr Andrea Hilton
Reader and Programme director, Non-Medical Prescribing

Yanhua Chen


Purpose: This phase 1 study aimed to develop a Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) educational resource for adolescents (10–19 years) in China, and to test its validity for improving diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy and adherence. Design and methods: This phase 1 study was carried out in four phases: preliminary development of the Type 1 diabetes educational resource in English based on the health belief model (HBM) and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Consensus Guidelines 2014; translation of the resource into Chinese; readability testing of the resource; and face and content validity testing for scientific and clinical accuracy. Results: Type 1 diabetes educational resource with 17 “topics” in four sections was developed for 10–19-years old adolescents in China. Cartoon story, images, stories, questions & answers, and quizzes were used to attract adolescents' interest. Furthermore, the educational resource was confirmed to be understandable among adolescents, clinically accurate, and consistent with its purpose. Conclusions: This resource with good readability and content validity is a potential facilitator for diabetes education and self-management in adolescents with T1DM in China. Practical implications: This type 1 diabetes resource can be used to educate adolescents with T1DM as a validated resource after further testing in an effectiveness study.


Zhao, X., Hilton, A., Watson, R., & Chen, Y. (in press). Development and validity testing of a type 1 diabetes resource for 10-19-years old adolescents in China. Journal of Pediatric Nursing,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 27, 2021
Online Publication Date Apr 7, 2021
Deposit Date Apr 19, 2021
Publicly Available Date Apr 8, 2022
Journal Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Print ISSN 0882-5963
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Diabetes education; Adolescents; Type 1 diabetes; Self-efficacy; Adherence
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