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Collateral donor artery physiology and the influence of a chronic total occlusion on fractional flow reserve

Ladwiniec, A.; Cunnington, Michael S.; Rossington, J.; Mather, Adam N.; Alahmar, A.; Oliver, Richard M.; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S.; Davies, Justin E.; Thackray, S.; Alamgir, F.; Hoye, Angela


A. Ladwiniec

Michael S. Cunnington

J. Rossington

Adam N. Mather

A. Alahmar

Richard M. Oliver

Sukhjinder S. Nijjer

Justin E. Davies

S. Thackray

F. Alamgir


Background— The presence of a concomitant chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) and a large collateral contribution might alter the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of an interrogated vessel, rendering the FFR unreliable at predicting ischemia should the CTO vessel be revascularized and potentially affecting the decision on optimal revascularization strategy. We tested the hypothesis that donor vessel FFR would significantly change after percutaneous coronary intervention of a concomitant CTO. Methods and Results— In consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention of a CTO, coronary pressure and flow velocity were measured at baseline and hyperemia in proximal and distal segments of both nontarget vessels, before and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Hemodynamics including FFR, absolute coronary flow, and the coronary flow velocity–pressure gradient relation were calculated. After successful percutaneous coronary intervention in 34 of 46 patients, FFR in the predominant donor vessel increased from 0.782 to 0.810 (difference, 0.028 [0.012 to 0.044]; P=0.001). Mean decrease in baseline donor vessel absolute flow adjusted for rate pressure product: 177.5 to 139.9 mL/min (difference −37.6 [−62.6 to −12.6]; P=0.005), mean decrease in hyperemic flow: 306.5 to 272.9 mL/min (difference, −33.5 [−58.7 to −8.3]; P=0.011). Change in predominant donor vessel FFR correlated with angiographic (%) diameter stenosis severity (r=0.44; P=0.009) and was strongly related to stenosis severity measured by the coronary flow velocity–pressure gradient relation (r=0.69; P<0.001). Conclusions— Recanalization of a CTO results in a modest increase in the FFR of the predominant collateral donor vessel associated with a reduction in coronary flow. A larger increase in FFR is associated with greater coronary stenosis severity.


Ladwiniec, A., Cunnington, M. S., Rossington, J., Mather, A. N., Alahmar, A., Oliver, R. M., …Hoye, A. (2015). Collateral donor artery physiology and the influence of a chronic total occlusion on fractional flow reserve. Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions, 8(4), Article UNSP e002219.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 19, 2015
Online Publication Date Mar 24, 2015
Publication Date 2015-04
Deposit Date Sep 4, 2015
Publicly Available Date Nov 23, 2017
Journal Circulation : cardiovascular Interventions
Print ISSN 1941-7640
Electronic ISSN 1941-7632
Publisher American Heart Association
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
Issue 4
Article Number UNSP e002219
Keywords Collateral circulation, Coronary artery disease, Physiology, Pressure
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Author's accepted manuscript of article published in: Circulation : cardiovascular Interventions, 2015, v.8, issue 4


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