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Therapeutics for type-2 diabetes mellitus: a glance at the recent inclusions and novel agents under development for use in clinical practice

Shah, Najeeb; Abdalla, Mohammed Altigani; Deshmukh, Harshal; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat


Najeeb Shah

Mohammed Altigani Abdalla


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, progressive, and multifaceted illness resulting in significant physical and psychological detriment to patients. As of 2019, 463 million people are estimated to be living with DM worldwide, out of which 90% have type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Over the years, significant progress has been made in identifying the risk factors for developing T2DM, understanding its pathophysiology and uncovering various metabolic pathways implicated in the disease process. This has culminated in the implementation of robust prevention programmes and the development of effective pharmacological agents, which have had a favourable impact on the management of T2DM in recent times. Despite these advances, the incidence and prevalence of T2DM continue to rise. Continuing research in improving efficacy, potency, delivery and reducing the adverse effect profile of currently available formulations is required to keep pace with this growing health challenge. Moreover, new metabolic pathways need to be targeted to produce novel pharmacotherapy to restore glucose homeostasis and address metabolic sequelae in patients with T2DM. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases for recently included agents and novel medication under development for treatment of T2DM. We discuss the pathophysiology of T2DM and review how the emerging anti-diabetic agents target the metabolic pathways involved. We also look at some of the limiting factors to developing new medication and the introduction of unique methods, including facilitating drug delivery to bypass some of these obstacles. However, despite the advances in the therapeutic options for the treatment of T2DM in recent years, the industry still lacks a curative agent.


Shah, N., Abdalla, M. A., Deshmukh, H., & Sathyapalan, T. (2021). Therapeutics for type-2 diabetes mellitus: a glance at the recent inclusions and novel agents under development for use in clinical practice. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 12,

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Aug 6, 2021
Online Publication Date Sep 23, 2021
Publication Date Jan 1, 2021
Deposit Date Dec 28, 2021
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Print ISSN 2042-0188
Electronic ISSN 2042-0196
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Keywords Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Novel agents; Treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus
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Copyright Statement
© The Author(s), 2021. Article reuse guidelines:<br /> <br /> article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (

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