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Nonlinear modelling and adaptive control of smart rotor wind turbines

Li, Juan; Wang, Yinan; Lin, Shuyue; Zhao, Xiaowei


Juan Li

Yinan Wang

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Dr Shuyue Lin
Lecturer in Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Xiaowei Zhao


This paper develops a nonlinear mid-fidelity aeroservoelastic model for smart rotor wind turbines and studies the turbulent load alleviation of the wind turbines with trailing edge flaps (TEFs) actuated by a novel proportional-derivative model-free adaptive control (PD-MFAC) algorithm. This nonlinear model contains a structural model for the tower and blades represented by geometrically non-linear composite beams and an aerodynamic model for the rotor using a vortex panel method coupled with a stall delay process. The capability of the new aerodynamic model to deal with flow separations and analyze the detailed flow field enables it to simulate the dynamic response of the wind turbine blade sections with TEFs with arbitrary size and deflection angles. It is shown that the TEF alters the aerodynamic coefficients in a complex manner which could be explained by the evolution of the detailed vortical field. Furthermore, three independent PD-MFAC TEF controllers are designed to alleviate the turbulent load acting on the wind turbines. The effectiveness of the controller in terms of turbulent load alleviation is evaluated by the root mean square value of the blade root-bending moment (RBM). A traditional Gain-scheduled PI (GS-PI) controller is also designed as a comparison to the PD-MFAC controller. Simulation results show that to reduce the RBM and blade tip deflection (BTD) caused by external disturbances, the PD-MFAC flap controller shows more effective performance than the GS-PI flap controllers.


Li, J., Wang, Y., Lin, S., & Zhao, X. (2022). Nonlinear modelling and adaptive control of smart rotor wind turbines. Renewable energy, 186, 677-690.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 6, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 12, 2022
Publication Date 2022-03
Deposit Date Apr 29, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 13, 2023
Journal Renewable Energy
Print ISSN 0960-1481
Electronic ISSN 1879-0682
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 186
Pages 677-690
Keywords Aeroelastic load alleviation; Model-free adaptive control (MFAC); Nonlinear system; Wind turbine; Smart rotor
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