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Examining the effect of ionic constituents on crystallization fouling on heat transfer surfaces

Al-Gailani, Amthal; Sanni, Olujide; Charpentier, Thibaut V.J.; Crisp, Richard; Bruins, Jantinus H.; Neville, Anne


Olujide Sanni

Thibaut V.J. Charpentier

Richard Crisp

Jantinus H. Bruins

Anne Neville


The effect of the most abundant constituents in potable water on fouling of aluminium surface has been studied systematically in this work. The role of sodium, chloride, magnesium and sulphate ions and total organic carbon (TOC) on the fouling kinetics and morphology was assessed using a once-through open flow cell. The findings showed that the fouling resistance to heat transfer increases with the concentration of chloride and sodium. A complex influence of magnesium was found on the scaling process, varying between inhibition and promotion of scale formation depending on the concentration. At high concentrations of Mg2+, the formed scale layer consists of needle-like aragonite coated by a crust of magnesium deposits. The inhibitory performance of sulphate SO42− was found to be insignificant when compared with Mg2+ under similar conditions. Even though it is undesirable in potable water, inhibition efficiencies of TOC were 31.3% and 47.9% at concentrations of 2 and 4.3 mg/L respectively. The morphology observations illustrated that the presence of TOC produces a rough scale layer.


Al-Gailani, A., Sanni, O., Charpentier, T. V., Crisp, R., Bruins, J. H., & Neville, A. (2020). Examining the effect of ionic constituents on crystallization fouling on heat transfer surfaces. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 160, Article 120180.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 8, 2020
Online Publication Date Jul 18, 2020
Publication Date 2020-10
Deposit Date Jun 17, 2022
Journal International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
Print ISSN 0017-9310
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 160
Article Number 120180
Keywords Heat transfer; Fouling resistance; Domestic appliances; Aluminium; Magnesium; Calcium carbonate
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