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Analysis of low carbon transport in Brunei Darussalam : case study of a sustainability transition in an oil-rich economy

Haji Abdullah, Muhammad Amirruddin


Muhammad Amirruddin Haji Abdullah



Moving towards sustainable transportation is a challenging task for Brunei, a small oil-rich country situated in South East Asia, whose population currently enjoys subsidised petrol feeding a culture heavily reliant on the automobile for personal mobility. This study aims to investigate the potential for the development of low-carbon transportation in Brunei Darussalam by using the Multi-Level Perspective of socio-technical transition.

This study uses mixed methods (survey questionnaires, interviews, and secondary data) to gain insights into the problems, issues, solutions and expectations of sustainable transportation in Brunei. In summary, Bruneians are over dependent on cars and the majority have negative attitudes and behaviour regarding bus services. The findings on resistance to alternative vehicles in this study are complex, compared to the current literature. The key factors are the car-oriented culture (the product of parenting, employment and security), current transport policies and other government initiatives (such as heavily subsidised petrol); all of which tend to promote the use of cars over buses.

The data were then incorporated into the three levels of the Multi-level Perspective. Results indicated that the transition in Brunei towards sustainable transportation (particularly towards low carbon transportation) is on-going but few disruptions in the regime, (especially attitudes and perceptions) are occurring. The complexity of transition and the technical, institutional, policy and car-related cultures have proved to be the barriers. The niches are finding it hard to compete with the current regime. Furthermore, fragmentations in the transportation institutions contribute to the failure to make progress towards sustainability. Therefore, the potential for transition to low-carbon transportation is essentially challenging and a difficult task to achieve. Thus, this thesis contributes to the transition literature in which the study of human attitudes, behaviour and perceptions (non-technological niche) towards sustainable transport are often under-researched and the study of single, or top-down governance, seems to be limited.


Haji Abdullah, M. A. (2015). Analysis of low carbon transport in Brunei Darussalam : case study of a sustainability transition in an oil-rich economy. (Thesis). University of Hull. Retrieved from

Thesis Type Thesis
Publication Date Jan 1, 2015
Deposit Date Apr 21, 2016
Publicly Available Date Feb 23, 2023
Keywords Geography
Public URL
Additional Information Department of Geography, Environment and Earth Sciences, The University of Hull


Thesis (5.4 Mb)

Copyright Statement
© 2015 Haji Abdullah, Muhammad Amirruddin. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright holder.

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