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Design, development and construction of an ATEX compliant ISO 9001:2008 magnetic ink manufacturing facility

Ward, Haydn James


Haydn James Ward


This Thesis charts the cradle-to-grave development of a chemical processing plant suitable for the manufacture of 160 tonnes per annum of magnetic ink, and the associated, in-line process, quality control and assurance methodologies, developing innovations for the printing industry. The work was undertaken through Knowledge Transfer Partnership number 9576 between BemroseBooth Paragon, Ltd. and The University of Hull.
First, the formulation of magnetic inks is described and characterized through a variety of physical and chemical measurements. The magnetic properties of the development inks are presented. Thirteen different ink formulations were developed during the course of this work, all of which are currently now available on the global market, being sold in four continents to, amongst others, the Rail Delivery Group (RDG, formerly ATOC), Régie-Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), all operators for the French motorway tolls (Sanef, Vinci, ASF, etc.), New York Metropolitan and Casa da Moeda do Brasil (CMB).
The design of the manufacturing process, including safety, health and environment consideration, are outlined, with their realization within an ISO 9001:2008 quality management system. The process economics are rationalized and pre-project estimations are contrasted with actual costs.
Fast moving manufacturing environments always require the development of innovations to expand product ranges and resolve issues associated with limited reverse supply chains and complications in the use of manufactured product. A variety of problems are presented, with realized and pragmatic pathways to their solution given. In keeping with the spirit of environmental responsibility, innovations in the development of water-based magnetic inks are presented, and routes to their low cost, in situ process monitoring, presented.
Last, an entirely new electrochemical approach to the detection of security threats in a mass transit environment is illustrated to a proof-of-concept.


Ward, H. J. (2018). Design, development and construction of an ATEX compliant ISO 9001:2008 magnetic ink manufacturing facility. (Thesis). University of Hull. Retrieved from

Thesis Type Thesis
Publication Date May 1, 2018
Deposit Date Jun 7, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jun 7, 2023
Keywords Chemical engineering
Public URL
Additional Information Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Hull


Thesis (7.6 Mb)

Copyright Statement
© 2018 Haydn James Ward. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the copyright holder.

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