Paper presented at 19th ISL, 2014, Ho Chi Minh The essence of the problem with waste is that it is by definition something that is not wanted. We argue here that achieving a sustainable solution requires consideration of both regulatory responsibilities and social norms (Deutz and Frostick, 2009). Landfill costs levy a high financial impact on municipalities due to the environmental directives that compel them to collect and recycle household waste. More efficient and effective systems are therefore crucial for municipalities from both a financial and environmental perspective. Thus, householders and municipalities “symbiotically” working together in a natural system could enhance sustainable living (Fennell and Weaver, 2005; Ehrenreich, 2002). This paper reports on the first two stages of a PhD research study project conducted within the two municipalities in the North of England. This research investigates the relationship between the sustainability and effectiveness of household recycling systems and household recycling behavior, reveals how factors associated with household recycling systems affect household recycling behaviour, and how household recycling behaviour affect the provision of household recycling systems by the local authorities. The main objective is to reveal and explain the interaction and symbiosis. In fact, this study has found that a ‘symbiosis effect’ perspective appears to be a robust framework to bring together effective household waste recycling systems and sustainable development considerations to enhance both sustainability and the economy. Further, the study provides empirical evidence examining both situational and personal factors of households and their interactions, which were previously not well-understood. This study has incorporated behavioural aspects in the reverse logistics process that should help improve the municipalities’ planning processes. Also, municipalities may be more adaptive to the changing behaviour of their constituents and more willing to change their waste and recycling strategies to more sustainable methods. The paper is structured as follows. The literature reviews from multiple lenses of multiple disciplines and research design that accessible for interdisciplinary study and the current findings with discussion as well as conclusion that explain and encapsulate symbiosis effect perspective in understanding reverse logistics and household waste recycling system (HRWS).