© 2016 Elsevier Ltd The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of stabilising foam bubbles in water by adsorption of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) particles. Because CaCO 3 is hydrophilic and not surface-active, particles were hydrophobised in situ with several emulsifiers. The used emulsifiers were food-grade and negatively charged at the pH employed. The effect of particle addition on foamability and foam stability of solutions containing either β-lactoglobulin, sodium caseinate, Quillaja, sodium dodecanoate (SD) or sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL) was studied. It was found that the ability of the emulsifiers to induce surface activity such that the particles are able to adsorb to the air-water interface is related to their structure. The structure needs to consist of a well-defined hydrophobic part and a charged part. Large emulsifiers with a complex structure, such as β-lactoglobulin, sodium caseinate and Quillaja, were able to partially hydrophobise the particles but were not able to act synergistically with the particles to increase the foam stability. Low molecular weight emulsifiers, however, consisting of a single tail with one charged group, such as SD and SSL, adsorbed at the particle surface rendering the particles partially hydrophobic such that they adsorb to the air-water interface. In a subsequent investigation, the pH was changed to a value typical for food products (pH 6–7) and the addition of milk salts on the foamability and foam stability was assessed. Based on these results, the use of food-grade CaCO 3 particles hydrophobised in situ with food-grade surfactants (SD or SSL) to prepare ultra-stable aqueous foams is demonstrated.
Binks, B. P., Muijlwijk, K., Koman, H., & Poortinga, A. T. (2017). Food-grade Pickering stabilisation of foams by in situ hydrophobisation of calcium carbonate particles. Food Hydrocolloids, 63, 585-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.10.002