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Integrated grey relational analysis and multi objective grey linear programming for sustainable electricity generation planning

Malekpoor, Hanif; Chalvatzis, Konstantinos; Mishra, Nishikant; Mehlawat, Mukesh Kumar; Zafirakis, Dimitrios; Song, Malin


Hanif Malekpoor

Konstantinos Chalvatzis

Mukesh Kumar Mehlawat

Dimitrios Zafirakis

Malin Song


Sustainable energy generation is a key feature in sustainable development and among various sources of energy electricity due to some unique characteristics seems particularly important. Optimising electricity generation mix is a highly complex task and requires consideration of numerous conflicting criteria. To deal with uncertainty of experts’ opinions, inaccuracy of the available data and including more factors, some of which are difficult to quantify, in particular for environmental and social criteria, we applied Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) with grey linguistic, and grey interval values to obtain the rank of each system. Then the obtained ranking were used as coefficients for a Multi Objective Decision Making (MODM) problem, aimed to minimize the cost, import dependencies and emissions as well as maximizing the share of generation sources with better ranking. Due to existence of interval variables Multi Objective Grey Linear Programming (MOGLP) method was used to solve the problem. Our results for the UK as a case study suggest increased role for all low carbon energy technologies and sharp reduction in the use of coal and oil. We argue that the integrated GRA-MOGLP approach provides an effective tool for the evaluation and optimisation of complex sustainable electricity generation planning. It is particularly promising in dealing with uncertainty and imprecisions, which reflect real-life scenarios in planning processes.


Malekpoor, H., Chalvatzis, K., Mishra, N., Mehlawat, M. K., Zafirakis, D., & Song, M. (2018). Integrated grey relational analysis and multi objective grey linear programming for sustainable electricity generation planning. Annals of Operations Research, 269(1-2), 475–503.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 24, 2017
Online Publication Date Jun 30, 2017
Publication Date 2018-10
Deposit Date Jun 27, 2017
Publicly Available Date Oct 27, 2022
Journal Annals of operations research
Print ISSN 0254-5330
Electronic ISSN 1572-9338
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 269
Issue 1-2
Pages 475–503
Keywords Electricity generation, Sustainable planning, MODM, Interval linear programming, GRA, MOGLP
Public URL
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Additional Information This is a copy of an open access article published in: Annals of operations research, 2017.


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© The Author(s) 2017<br /> Open Access<br /> This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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