Skip to main content

Feedforward, -backward and neutral transparency measures for British English

Spencer, Kenneth A.


Kenneth A. Spencer


Orthographic transparency metrics for opaque or deep languages such as French and English have tended to focus on feedforward and/or feedback directions, with claims made for the influence of both on reading. In the present study, data for five transparency metrics for Southern British English, three of which are neither feedforward nor feedback, are presented demonstrating the complex relationships between metrics, and offering an explanation for feedback effects in children's reading accuracy. The structure of such metrics from a variety of corpus sizes and origins is investigated, concluding that large corpus sizes do not make a substantial contribution to the value of such metrics when compared with smaller samples, and that adult and child corpuses have very similar profiles.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2009-02
Print ISSN 1554-351X
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Not Peer Reviewed
Volume 41
Issue 1
Pages 220-227
APA6 Citation Spencer, K. A. (2009). Feedforward, -backward and neutral transparency measures for British English. Behavior research methods, 41(1), (220-227). doi:10.3758/BRM.41.1.220. ISSN 1554-351X
Keywords Dyslexia; Visual word recognition; Orthographic transparency; Corpus size; English orthography
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement ©2017 The University of Hull


You might also like

Downloadable Citations