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Characterization of energy-rich hydrochars from microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization of coconut shell

Elaigwu, Sunday E.; Greenway, Gillian M.


Sunday E. Elaigwu

Gillian M. Greenway


In this study, microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization of waste coconut shell (feedstock) is reported. It is a thermo-conversion technique in which the feedstock was transformed into energy-rich carbonaceous material under mild conditions. The process was conducted in a microwave oven by heating the waste coconut shell in deionized water inside a pressurized vessel. The effects of different process conditions on the product yields, and the energy properties of the hydrochars were studied by varying the reaction temperature from 150 to 200 °C and residence time from 5 to 30 min. The results showed that there was transformation of the feedstock in the process due to the decarboxylation, dehydration, and demethanation reactions. This led to changes in the chemical and structural compositions, as well as increase in the energy properties of the prepared hydrochars. The higher heating value increased from 15.06 MJ/kg in the feedstock to 19.76 MJ/kg in the hydrochar. The energy properties of the hydrochars prepared in this study showed that microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization process could be a technique for converting waste coconut shell into high value-added product.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2019-07
Journal Waste and Biomass Valorization
Print ISSN 1877-2641
Electronic ISSN 1877-265X
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 7
Pages 1979–1987
APA6 Citation Elaigwu, S. E., & Greenway, G. M. (2019). Characterization of energy-rich hydrochars from microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization of coconut shell. Waste and biomass valorization, 10(7), 1979–1987.
Keywords Microwave-assisted; Hydrothermal carbonization; Hydrochar; Coconut shell; Product yields; Energy properties
Publisher URL
Copyright Statement ©2018 The University of Hull
Additional Information This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Waste and Biomass Valorization.. The final authenticated version is available online at:


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