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Free-sustaining three-dimensional S235 steel-based porous electrocatalyst for highly efficient and durable oxygen evolution

Han, Weijia; Kuepper, Karsten; Hou, Peilong; Akram, Wajiha; Eickmeier, Henning; Hardege, Jörg; Steinhart, Martin; Schäfer, Helmut


Weijia Han

Karsten Kuepper

Peilong Hou

Wajiha Akram

Henning Eickmeier

Martin Steinhart

Helmut Schäfer


A novel oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst (3D S235-P steel) based on steel S235 substrate has been successfully prepared via a facile one-step surface modification. The standard Carbon Manganese steel was phosphorizated superficially leading to the formation of a unique 3D interconnected nanoporous surface with high specific area which facilitates the electrocatalytically initiated oxygen evolution reaction. The prepared 3D S235-P steel exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic OER activities in alkaline regime confirmed by a low overpotential (η=326 mV at j=10 mA cm-2) and a small Tafel slope of 68.7 mV dec-1. Moreover, the catalyst was found to be stable under long-term usage conditions functioning as oxygen evolving electrode at pH 13 as evidenced by the sufficient charge to oxygen conversion rate (Faradaic efficiency: 82.11% and 88.34% at 10 mA cm-2 and 5 mA cm-2, respectively). In addition, it turned out that the chosen surface modification renders steel S235 into an OER electrocatalyst sufficiently and stable to work in neutral pH condition. Our investigation revealed that the high catalytic activities are likely to stem from the generated Fe/(Mn) hydroxide/oxo-hydroxides generated during the OER process. The phosphorization treatment is therefore not only an efficient way to optimize the electrocatalytic performance of standard Carbon-Manganese steel, but also enables for the development of low cost and abundant steels in the field of energy conversion.


Han, W., Kuepper, K., Hou, P., Akram, W., Eickmeier, H., Hardege, J., …Schäfer, H. (2018). Free-sustaining three-dimensional S235 steel-based porous electrocatalyst for highly efficient and durable oxygen evolution. ChemSusChem, 11(20), 3661-3671. doi:10.1002/cssc.201801351

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 10, 2018
Online Publication Date Sep 12, 2018
Publication Date Oct 24, 2018
Deposit Date Aug 15, 2018
Publicly Available Date Sep 13, 2019
Print ISSN 1864-5631
Electronic ISSN 1864-564X
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 20
Article Number cssc.201801351R1
Pages 3661-3671
Keywords Steel; Phosphorization; Electrocatalyst; Oxygen evolution reaction
Public URL
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©2018 The authors

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