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Dr Steve Simmons


Time-Lapse Seafloor Surveys Reveal How Turbidity Currents and Internal Tides in Monterey Canyon Interact With the Seabed at Centimeter-Scale (2023)
Journal Article
Wolfson-Schwehr, M., Paull, C. K., Caress, D. W., Gwiazda, R., Nieminski, N. M., Talling, P. J., …Troni, G. (2023). Time-Lapse Seafloor Surveys Reveal How Turbidity Currents and Internal Tides in Monterey Canyon Interact With the Seabed at Centimeter-Scale. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 128(4), Article e2022JF006705. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022JF006705

Here we show how ultra-high resolution seabed mapping using new technology can help to understand processes that sculpt submarine canyons. Time-lapse seafloor surveys were conducted in the axis of Monterey Canyon, ∼50km from the canyon head (∼1,840m... Read More about Time-Lapse Seafloor Surveys Reveal How Turbidity Currents and Internal Tides in Monterey Canyon Interact With the Seabed at Centimeter-Scale.

Density stratification controls the bedform phase diagram of saline-gravity currents versus open-channel flows (2023)
Journal Article
Ohata, K., de Cala, I., Dorrell, R. M., Naruse, H., McLelland, S. J., Simmons, S. M., & McCaffrey, W. D. (in press). Density stratification controls the bedform phase diagram of saline-gravity currents versus open-channel flows. Sedimentology, https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.13075

Sedimentary bedforms such as ripples and dunes are generated both by river flows and sediment-laden gravity currents. Gravity current deposits are usually parameterized using existing bedform phase diagrams which are based on data from laboratory exp... Read More about Density stratification controls the bedform phase diagram of saline-gravity currents versus open-channel flows.

Detailed monitoring reveals the nature of submarine turbidity currents (2023)
Journal Article
Talling, P. J., Cartigny, M., Pope, E., Baker, M., Clare, M., Hage, S., …Maier, K. L. (2023). Detailed monitoring reveals the nature of submarine turbidity currents. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-023-00458-1

Seafloor sediment flows, called turbidity currents, form the largest sediment accumulations, deepest canyons and longest channels on Earth. It was once thought that turbidity currents were impractical to measure in action, especially given their abil... Read More about Detailed monitoring reveals the nature of submarine turbidity currents.

Carbon and sediment fluxes inhibited in the submarine Congo Canyon by landslide-damming (2022)
Journal Article
Pope, E. L., Heijnen, M., Talling, P., Jacinto, R. S., Gaillot, A., Baker, M., …Urlaub, M. (in press). Carbon and sediment fluxes inhibited in the submarine Congo Canyon by landslide-damming. Nature Geoscience, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-022-01017-x

Landslide-dams, which are often transient, can strongly affect the geomorphology, and sediment and geochemical fluxes, within subaerial fluvial systems. The potential occurrence and impact of analogous landslide-dams in submarine canyons has, however... Read More about Carbon and sediment fluxes inhibited in the submarine Congo Canyon by landslide-damming.

Longest sediment flows yet measured show how major rivers connect efficiently to deep sea (2022)
Journal Article
Talling, P. J., Baker, M. L., Pope, E. L., Ruffell, S. C., Silva Jacinto, R., Heijnen, M. S., …Hilton, R. J. (2022). Longest sediment flows yet measured show how major rivers connect efficiently to deep sea. Nature communications, 13, Article 4193. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31689-3

We document directly for the first time how major river floods connect to the deep-sea, by analysing the longest runout sediment flows (of any type) yet measured in action. These seafloor turbidity currents originated from the Congo River-mouth, with... Read More about Longest sediment flows yet measured show how major rivers connect efficiently to deep sea.

First source-to-sink monitoring shows dense head controls sediment flux and runout in turbidity currents (2022)
Journal Article
Pope, E. L., Cartigny, M. J., Clare, M. A., Talling, P. J., Lintern, D. G., Vellinga, A., …Vendettuoli, D. (2022). First source-to-sink monitoring shows dense head controls sediment flux and runout in turbidity currents. Science Advances, 8(20), eabj3220. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abj3220

Until recently, despite being one of the most important sediment transport phenomena on Earth, few direct measurements of turbidity currents existed. Consequently, their structure and evolution were poorly understood, particularly whether they are de... Read More about First source-to-sink monitoring shows dense head controls sediment flux and runout in turbidity currents.

Fill, flush or shuffle: How is sediment carried through submarine channels to build lobes? (2022)
Journal Article
Heijnen, M. S., Clare, M. A., Cartigny, M. J., Talling, P. J., Hage, S., Pope, E. L., …Hughes Clarke, J. E. (2022). Fill, flush or shuffle: How is sediment carried through submarine channels to build lobes?. Earth and planetary science letters, 584, Article 117481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117481

Submarine channels are the primary conduits for land-derived material, including organic carbon, pollutants, and nutrients, into the deep-sea. The flows (turbidity currents) that traverse these systems can pose hazards to seafloor infrastructure such... Read More about Fill, flush or shuffle: How is sediment carried through submarine channels to build lobes?.

Knickpoints and crescentic bedform interactions in submarine channels (2021)
Journal Article
Chen, Y., Parsons, D. R., Simmons, S. M., Williams, R., Cartigny, M. J. B., Hughes Clarke, J. E., …Vendettuoli, D. (2021). Knickpoints and crescentic bedform interactions in submarine channels. Sedimentology, 68(4), 1358-1377. https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12886

Submarine channels deliver globally important volumes of sediments, nutrients, contaminants and organic carbon into the deep sea. Knickpoints are significant topographic features found within numerous submarine channels, which most likely play an imp... Read More about Knickpoints and crescentic bedform interactions in submarine channels.

Preconditioning by sediment accumulation can produce powerful turbidity currents without major external triggers (2021)
Journal Article
Bailey, L. P., Clare, M. A., Rosenberger, K. J., Cartigny, M. J., Talling, P. J., Paull, C. K., …Monterey CCE Team. (2021). Preconditioning by sediment accumulation can produce powerful turbidity currents without major external triggers. Earth and planetary science letters, 562, Article 116845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2021.116845

Turbidity currents dominate sediment transfer into the deep ocean, and can damage critical seabed infrastructure. It is commonly inferred that powerful turbidity currents are triggered by major external events, such as storms, river floods, or earthq... Read More about Preconditioning by sediment accumulation can produce powerful turbidity currents without major external triggers.

Relating the Flow Processes and Bedforms of Steady-State and Waning Density Currents (2020)
Journal Article
de Cala, I., Ohata, K., Dorrell, R., Naruse, H., Patacci, M., Amy, L. A., …McCaffrey, W. D. (2020). Relating the Flow Processes and Bedforms of Steady-State and Waning Density Currents. Frontiers in Earth Science, 8, Article 535743. https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.535743

© Copyright© 2020 de Cala, Ohata, Dorrell, Naruse, Patacci, Amy, Simmons, McLelland and McCaffrey. The interaction between turbidity currents and mobile substrates can lead to the development of different types of bedforms. Although much research has... Read More about Relating the Flow Processes and Bedforms of Steady-State and Waning Density Currents.