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MRI and PET/MRI in hematologic malignancies

Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Archibald, Stephen J.; Messiou, Christina; Staudenherz, Anton; Berzaczy, Dominik; Schöder, Heiko


Marius E. Mayerhoefer

Christina Messiou

Anton Staudenherz

Dominik Berzaczy

Heiko Schöder


The role of MRI differs considerably between the three main groups of hematological malignancies: lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma. In myeloma, whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) is recognized as a highly sensitive test for the assessment of myeloma, and is also endorsed by clinical guidelines, especially for detection and staging. In lymphoma, WB-MRI is presently not recommended, and merely serves as an alternative technique to the current standard imaging test, [18F]FDG-PET/CT, especially in pediatric patients. Even for lymphomas with variable FDG avidity, such as extranodal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), but not WB-MRI, is presently recommended, despite the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MRI and its ability to capture treatment response that has been reported in the literature. In leukemia, neither MRI nor any other cross-sectional imaging test (including positron emission tomography [PET]) is currently recommended outside of clinical trials. This review article discusses current clinical applications as well as the main research topics for MRI, as well as PET/MRI, in the field of hematological malignancies, with a focus on functional MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, on the one hand, and novel, non-FDG PET imaging probes such as the CXCR4 radiotracer [68Ga]Ga-Pentixafor and the amino acid radiotracer [11C]methionine, on the other hand. Level of Evidence: 5. Technical Efficacy Stage: 3.


Mayerhoefer, M. E., Archibald, S. J., Messiou, C., Staudenherz, A., Berzaczy, D., & Schöder, H. (2020). MRI and PET/MRI in hematologic malignancies. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI, 51(5), 1325-1335.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Jun 17, 2019
Online Publication Date Jul 1, 2019
Publication Date May 1, 2020
Deposit Date Aug 17, 2019
Publicly Available Date Aug 19, 2019
Journal Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Print ISSN 1053-1807
Electronic ISSN 1522-2586
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 51
Issue 5
Pages 1325-1335
Keywords Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
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Copyright Statement
© 2019 The Authors Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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